The Americas

All States of the Americas are members of the Organization of American States. The Charter of the Organization of American States (see establishes in article 106 the “Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, whose principal function shall be to promote the observance and protection of human rights and to serve as a consultative organ of the Organization in these matters.
The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) is the principal organ of the OAS in relation to human rights, carrying out thematic activities and initiatives, preparing reports on the human rights situation in a certain country or on a particular thematic issue, and processing and analysing individual petitions in cases of alleged human rights violations.
The legal framework of the IACHR is either the 1948 Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (the American Declaration – see, or the American Convention on Human Rights of 1969 (see, or other relevant inter-American human rights treaties.
The second relevant human rights related organ of the OAS is the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, established in 1979 (see It is not possible to bring a case directly to the Inter-American Court – only the Inter-American Commission can do so, and only for those States members of the OAS that have accepted the jurisdiction of the Court.
Part of the mandate of the IACHR is also to observe the general situation of human rights in the Member States and publish, when it deems appropriate, reports on the situation in a given Member State.

A much more recent regional instrument is the Ibero-American Convention on the Rights of Youth from 11 October 2005 (English: This convention, which applies to young people between 15 and 24 years, recognises in article 12 explicitly the right to conscientious objection to obligatory military service. Article 35 paragraph 4 also establishes that the national authorities competent for public youth policy shall submit to the Secretary-General of the Ibero-American Youth Organisation ( a biannual report on the progress made in achieving the observance of the provisions of the convention. However, there is no review procedure.